The DIKW hierarchies talk about data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. The first level is unstructured information which includes everything that is happening in the world that has not been organized. This information is useless because it is unorganized and people won’t know how to interpret this or know what to do with it. This information can be transformed into data though which are records of observations. From there, data can be transformed into a way where people can use this for their benefit. This becomes structured information. Once people are able to perceive the patterns or meaning of structured information, it becomes knowledge and once someone understands knowledge on a deeper meaning, it becomes wisdom. It is important to note that not all information will move up in the hierarchy. The book also talks about visualization as a technology. They break down the definition of technology as “a means to fulfill a human purpose.” Since visualizations can help us to interpret and understand data, it fulfills a purpose and can be thought of as technology. Depending on how much information is placed on a visualization, it could be classified as technologies-singular, technologies-plural or technology-general. Like the National Geographic, our research and process have similarities. This includes doing pre-research about a topic. This allows you to view a topic from different angles and think in different perspectives. We also do things that we prefer as a pose to what’s recommended. For example they use clay instead of making a 3D model on the computer.